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Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) - Final Regulatory Action
Chlordane CAS number:
Date circular:

Chemical name: 4,7-Methano-1H-indene, 1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-octachloro-2,3,3a,4,7,7a-hexahydro-

Final regulatory action has been taken for the category: Pesticide

Final regulatory action: The chemical is Banned

Use or uses prohibited by the final regulatory action:

M-410,chlor-kil,chlorotox,corodane,cold creat c-100,kilex,kypcholr,octachlor,octaklor,synkclor,topicolor 20, chlordan,preztox,pentickclor (names disused:aspon-chlordano,ortho-klor,niram,termided,velcicol1068,goldcrest c-50,belt).
Insecticide widely used in crops, gardening and forests. It was restricted only to control termites in some countries until its final cancellation.
Technical chlordane may contain nearly 11 compounds.

Pesticide use or uses that remain allowed:

Import of this chemical is not authorised in Venezuela.

The final regulatory action was based on a risk or hazard evaluation: No

Summary of the final regulatory action:

Law approving the Stockholm Convention, which is part of the legal framework of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.
NOTE: The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has signed and ratified the provisions of the Stockholm Convention related to pesticides, stipulated in Art. 3 and Annex A of the Convention.
Act on Hazardous Substances, Materials and Wastes
In Article 7, prohibits all uses, importation and distribution of polluting organic-persistent chemicals, with the exception of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), which may be used in a restricted manner, and only by government agencies, under the supervision of the Ministry of Health and Social Development, and with the approval of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, in case of need to control epidemies. The list of polluting organic-persistent chemicals will be determined by the technical regulations and the international conventions, regulating this issue, ratified by the Republic.
Resolution of the Ministries of Health and Welfare, Agriculture and Livestock and Environment and Renewable Natural Resources
Official Gazette of the Republic of Venezuela
It is the duty of the national executive to watch for the public health, and the protection and preservation of the environment;
Organochlorine insecticides carry pollution problems of soils, water and air which should cause ecological imbalances in the environment;
as has been detected by the indiscriminate use of organochlorine insecticides, which results in public health problems by the permanence of these residues in foods of vegetal and animal origin.
For provision of the citizen President of the Republic and in accordance with the provisions of Article 36, paragraph 2 of the Organic Law of Central Administration, Article 10 of the National Health Act, Articles 4 and 5 of the Fertilizer Act and other Agents Susceptible to operate a beneficial action in plants, animals, soil or waters and Article 1 of the Sanitary Defense Law for Plant and Animal.
Article 1- Preparation, import, export, storage, purchase, sale and distribution of organochlorine insecticides are only allowed for the following uses:
1.Vector control for medical reasons, provided that its application is executed by the Ministry of Health and Welfare or under its supervision and technical advice.
2.Control of agricultural pests, wherever an emergency situation and its application is executed or directed by the Ministry of Agriculture and breeding.
3.Control of leaf-cutting ants and ants, only grainy formulations containing Aldrin and Chlordane and in direct applications to the ground.
4.Control of termite in formulations containing Aldrin and Chlordane.
Article 2- The Ministries of Health and Welfare and Agriculture and Breeding will publish timely, for the purpose of this Resolution, the list of the substances considered as organochlorine compounds.
Article 3- Those cases not covered by this resolution, will be remitted to the National Executive through Joint Resolution of the Ministries of Health and Welfare, Agriculture and Livestock and the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources.
Article 4- To obtain authorizations to import, formulate and trade organochlorine insecticides, will be followed the procedure established in the general regulation of pesticides.
Article 5- The relevant officials of the respective Ministries will ensure strict compliance of this resolution.
Article 6- The infractions to the provisions contained in the present resolution shall be punished according to the rules specified in the Law on Sanitary Protection of Plants and Animals, without prejudice of the application of other sanctions contained in the existing legislation.
Article 7- The present resolution will enter into force two months after the date of publication in the official gazette of the Republic of Venezuela.

The reasons for the final regulatory action were relevant to: Human health and environment

Summary of known hazards and risks to human health:

Acute: same to those of exposure to organochlorines.
Chronics: prolonged exposure can lead to excite the central nervous system, abnormalities in the electroencephalogram and convulsions.
Classified as Group 3 by IARC (possible human carcinogenic); it has been found that reduces fertility at 50% in rats (22mg/kg dosed once a week during 3 weeks.
Acute Effects: Headache, irritability, loss of appetite, excitation, recurrent convulsions, respiratory system depression and coma. In contact with skin or eyes can cause irritation and burns. Exposure to vapor can irritate nose, mouth and throat. There can also appear nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, elevated liver enzymes and liver necrosis.
Chronic effects: Chlordane may accumulate in body fat. Prolonged exposition can cause central nervous system an excitation, abnormalities on electroencephalogram and tonic-clonic convulsions. It can also cause kidney damage, optic neuritis, megaloblastic anemia, jaundice and induction of liver microsomal enzymes, which can lead to interactions between drugs and this pesticide (reducing the effectiveness of oral anticoagulants, phenilbutazone, chlorpromazine, cortisone and diphenhydramine, among others, and increases the activity of thyroid hormone). It can cause chloracne.
Chlordane affects the nervous system, digestive system and liver in humans and animals. People who breathe air with high levels of chlordane, or accidentally swallowed small amounts of chlordane were affected of headaches, irritability, confusion, weakness, vision problems, vomiting, stomach cramps, diarrhea and jaundice. In humans, eating big amounts of chlordane can cause convulsions and death.
A person who had prolonged contact through the skin with high levels of chlordane in contaminated soil suffered convulsions. In Japan, some workers who used chlordane for a long period suffered minor alterations to the liver.
Those animals administered, for a short time, high amount of chlordane orally died or suffered seizures. In test animals, long term exposure caused liver damages. We don't know whether exposure to chlordane affects the capacity to reproduce or if it produces birth defects in humans. In animals exposed before birth or through breast milk were observed alterations in the behavior later on.

Summary of known hazards and risks to the environment:

Chlordane in the Environment: high bioaccumulation and potential biomagnification.
It is extremely toxic for fish, crustaceans, birds, bees and earthworms; highly persistent in soils; half life in soils 4 years and can persist as much as 20 years; relatively immobile in the environment and is set into the soil particles.
Mobility: Based on field tests, chlordane is generally believed slightly or not mobile.
Degradation: Chlordane is very persistent in soils, with a semi disintegration of about 4 years. Several studies have found chlordane residues greater than 10 per cent of the amount initially applied ten years or more after application. Sunlight can separate a small amount of chlordane when exposed to the sun. Chlordane can not degrade chemically, nor can be subject to biodegradation in soil. The molecules of chlordane often remain absorbed in particles of clay or in the soil organic material in the upper layers volatilizing slowly in the atmosphere. However, it has been detected extremely low levels of chlordane (from 0.01 to 0.0001mg/l) in both groundwater and surface water from areas where chlordane was intensively used. Sandy soils allow chlordane filter to groundwater.
Chlordane doesn't degrade quickly in water. It can be eliminated from aquatic systems through absorption in sediments or through volatilization.
Degradation Products
Chlordane photo isomers appear to occur under natural conditions. All these photo isomers play an important role, since for some animals they are much more toxic than chlordane itself. Photo-cis-chlordane, which is more biodegradable than cis-chlordane, presents higher bioaccumulation values and consequently may have more significant effects in the food chain.
Evaporation is the main route of elimination in soils. The estimated time for semi disintegration by volatilization of chlordane in lakes and ponds is less than 10 days. However, absorption in sediments considerably reduces the importance of volatilization. In vapor phase, Chlordane reacts with hydroxyl radicals produced photo chemically with an estimated rate of disintegration of 6 hours, which seems to indicate that this reaction is the dominant procedure for the chemical disposal.
High accumulation in aquatic organisms.
No data available at present.
What happens to chlordane when enters in the environment:
Chlordane enters in the environment when used as pesticide in crops, lawns and gardens; and to control termites.
Chlordane adheres firmly to the particles in the soil surface and it is unlikely that it enters in the groundwater.
Can remain in soils more than 20 years.
Most chlordane in soil evaporates into the air.
Slow degradation.
Chlordane doesn't dissolve easily in water.
It may accumulate in fish, birds and mammals tissues.

Date of entry into force of the final regulatory action: 18/07/2005

Law approving Stockholm Convention
Ratification 03 January 2005, Official Gazette N 38.098, (Entered into force 18-07-05).
Act on Hazardous Substances, Materials and Wastes
LAW N 55
Official Gazette Extraordinary No. 5554 dated 13 November 2001.
Resolution of the Ministries of Health and Welfare, Agriculture and Livestock and Environment and Renewable Natural Resources
Official Gazette Extraordinary No 32741 dated 6 June 1983.