Return to the list
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) - Final Regulatory Action
Toxaphene (Camphechlor) CAS number:
Date circular:

Chemical name: Toxaphene

Final regulatory action has been taken for the category: Pesticide

Final regulatory action: The chemical is Banned

Use or uses prohibited by the final regulatory action:

Common Formulation:
Insecticide used in the past mainly on crops of cotton, maize, cereals and vegetables, and then restricted to be only used for sanitary bath for cattle against ticks and mites in some countries. It is a complex mixture of 670 chemicals.

Pesticide use or uses that remain allowed:

Import of this chemical is not authorised in Venezuela.

The final regulatory action was based on a risk or hazard evaluation: No

Summary of the final regulatory action:

Law approving the Stockholm Convention, which is part of the legal framework of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.
NOTE: The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has signed and ratified the provisions of the Stockholm Convention related to pesticides, stipulated in Art. 3 and Annex A of the Convention.
Act on Hazardous Substances, Materials and Wastes
In Article 7, prohibits all uses, importation and distribution of polluting organic-persistent chemicals, with the exception of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), which may be used in a restricted manner, and only by government agencies, under the supervision of the Ministry of Health and Social Development, and with the approval of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, in case of need to control epidemics. The list of polluting organic-persistent chemicals will be determined by the technical regulations and the international conventions, regulating this issue, ratified by the Republic.
Resolution of the Ministries of Health and Welfare, Agriculture and Livestock and Environment and Renewable Natural Resources
Official Gazette of the Republic of Venezuela
It is the duty of the national executive to watch for the public health, and the protection and preservation of the environment;
Organochlorine insecticides carry pollution problems of soils, water and air which should cause ecological imbalances in the environment;
as has been detected by the indiscriminate use of organochlorine insecticides, which results in public health problems by the permanence of these residues in foods of vegetal and animal origin.
For provision of the citizen President of the Republic and in accordance with the provisions of Article 36, paragraph 2 of the Organic Law of Central Administration, Article 10 of the National Health Act, Articles 4 and 5 of the Fertilizer Act and other Agents Susceptible to operate a beneficial action in plants, animals, soil or waters and Article 1 of the Sanitary Defense Law for Plant and Animal.
Article 1- Preparation, import, export, storage, purchase, sale and distribution of organochlorine insecticides are only allowed for the following uses:
1.Vector control for medical reasons, provided that its application is executed by the Ministry of Health and Welfare or under its supervision and technical advice.
2.Control of agricultural pests, wherever an emergency situation and its application is executed or directed by the Ministry of Agriculture and breeding.
3.Control of leaf-cutting ants and ants, only grainy formulations containing Aldrin and Chlordane and in direct applications to the ground.
4.Control of termite in formulations containing Aldrin and Chlordane.
Article 2- The Ministries of Health and Welfare and Agriculture and Breeding will publish timely, for the purpose of this Resolution, the list of the substances considered as organochlorine compounds.
Article 3- Those cases not covered by this resolution, will be remitted to the National Executive through Joint Resolution of the Ministries of Health and Welfare, Agriculture and Livestock and the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources.
Article 4- To obtain authorizations to import, formulate and trade organochlorine insecticides, will be followed the procedure established in the general regulation of pesticides.
Article 5- The relevant officials of the respective Ministries will ensure strict compliance of this resolution.
Article 6- The infractions to the provisions contained in the present resolution shall be punished according to the rules specified in the Law on Sanitary Protection of Plants and Animals, without prejudice of the application of other sanctions contained in the existing legislation.
Article 7- The present resolution will enter into force two months after the date of publication in the official gazette of the Republic of Venezuela.

The reasons for the final regulatory action were relevant to: Human health and environment

Summary of known hazards and risks to human health:

Health effects:
Acute: Same to those of exposure to organochlorines.
Chronic: Classified as Group 2B by IARC (possible human carcinogenic); endocrine disruption (1).
Breathing, eating or taking high levels of toxaphene can cause damage to the lungs, the nervous system, and kidneys and can even cause death. However, as toxaphene is no longer used in the United States, it is unlikely that most people can be exposed to high levels of toxaphene.
People can be exposed to lower levels; however, there's no information on the effects of low doses levels in humans.
Studies in animals that ate food or drank water with toxaphene described effects to the liver, kidneys, the adrenal glands and the immune system.
It is not know whether toxaphene can affect reproduction or if it causes birth defects in humans. In animal studies it has been observed that toxaphene affects the development of hatchings when mothers were exposed during pregnancy.

Summary of known hazards and risks to the environment:

Toxaphene in the Environment:
The KOC notified of 2.1x 10+5 indicates that toxaphene will be absorbed very intensely in soils and sediments. It is not expected to be mobile.
Toxaphene is extremely persistent. When released into the soil, remains for long periods (1 to 4 years). Anaerobic conditions may encourage biodegradation. Toxaphene released into the water does not appreciably hydrolyzes, does neither photolysis nor biodegrades significantly.
Degradation Products:
No data available
Evaporation from soils and surfaces will be an important process for toxaphene. For the evaporation of this product in rivers a semi disintegration of six hours can be calculated. Toxaphene can suffer an extremely slow direct photolysis in the atmosphere. It can be airbornetransported for long distances (1,200 Km), probably absorbed by a specific material.
Toxaphene accumulates strongly in aquatic organisms
What happen to Toxaphene when enters in the environment
Toxaphene can enter to the environment from hazardous wastes sites.
Can enter to the air by evaporation.
Do not dissolve well in water and it is more probable to find it in the air, soil or sediments at the bottom of lakes or streams than in surface waters.
Toxaphene degrades very slowly in the environment.
Toxaphene accumulates in fish and in mammals.

Date of entry into force of the final regulatory action: 18/07/2005

Law approving Stockholm Convention
Ratification 03 January 2005, Official Gazette N 38.098, (Entered into force 18-07-05).
Act on Hazardous Substances, Materials and Wastes
LAW N 55
Official Gazette Extraordinary No. 5554 dated 13 November 2001.
Resolution of the Ministries of Health and Welfare, Agriculture and Livestock and Environment and Renewable Natural Resources
Official Gazette Extraordinary No 32741 dated 6 June 1983