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Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) - Final Regulatory Action
Heptachlor CAS number:
Date circular:

Chemical name: 4,7-Methano-1H-indene, 1,4,5,6,7,8,8-heptachloro-3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-

Final regulatory action has been taken for the category: Pesticide

Final regulatory action: The chemical is Banned

Use or uses prohibited by the final regulatory action:

Common Formulation:
Fungicide. It is also a pollutant by-product, resulting from the production of other pesticides and chlorinated compounds.
Mainly used as insecticide against termites, ants and insects in soil; and seeds cereals and crops.

Pesticide use or uses that remain allowed:

Import of this chemical is not authorised in Venezuela

The final regulatory action was based on a risk or hazard evaluation: No

Summary of the final regulatory action:

Law approving the Stockholm Convention, which is part of the legal framework of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.
NOTE: The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has signed and ratified the provisions of the Stockholm Convention related to pesticides, stipulated in Art. 3 and Annex A of the Convention.
Act on Hazardous Substances, Materials and Wastes
In Article 7, prohibits all uses, importation and distribution of polluting organic-persistent chemicals, with the exception of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), which may be used in a restricted manner, and only by government agencies, under the supervision of the Ministry of Health and Social Development, and with the approval of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, in case of need to control plagues. The list of polluting organic-persistent chemicals will be determined by the technical regulations and the international conventions, regulating this issue, ratified by the Republic.
Resolution of the Ministries of Health and Welfare, Agriculture and Livestock and Environment and Renewable Natural Resources
Official Gazette of the Republic of Venezuela
It is the duty of the national executive to watch for public health, and the protection and preservation of the environment;
the organochlorine insecticides carry pollution problems of soils, water and air which should cause ecological imbalances in the environment;
as has been detected by the indiscriminate use of organochlorine insecticides, which results in public health problems by the permanence of these residues in foods of vegetal and animal origin.
For provision of the citizen President of the Republic and in accordance with the provisions of Article 36, paragraph 2 of the Organic Law of Central Administration, Article 10 of the National Health Act, Articles 4 and 5 of the Fertilizer Act and other Agents Susceptible to operate a beneficial action in plants, animals, soil or waters and Article 1 of the Sanitary Defense Law for Plant and Animal.
Article 1- Preparation, import, export, storage, purchase, sale and distribution of organochlorine insecticides are only allowed for the following uses:
1.Vector control for medical reasons, provided that its application is executed by the Ministry of Health and Welfare or under its supervision and technical advice.
2.Control of agricultural pests, wherever an emergency situation and its application is executed or directed by the Ministry of Agriculture and breeding.
3.Control of leaf-cutting ants and ants, only in grainy formulations containing Aldrin and Chlordane and in direct applications to the ground.
4.Control of termite in formulations containing Aldrin and Chlordane.
Article 2- The Ministries of Health and Welfare and Agriculture and Breeding will publish timely, for the purpose of this Resolution, the list of the substances considered as organochlorine compounds.
Article 3- Those cases not covered by this resolution, will be remitted to the National Executive through Joint Resolution of the Ministries of Health and Welfare, Agriculture and Livestock and the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources.
Article 4- To obtain authorizations to import, formulate and trade organochlorine insecticides, will be followed the procedure established in the general regulation of pesticides.
Article 5- The relevant officials of the respective Ministries will ensure strict compliance of this resolution.
Article 6- The infractions to the provisions contained in the present resolution shall be punished according to the rules specified in the Law on Sanitary Protection of Plants and Animals, without prejudice of the application of other sanctions contained in the existing legislation.
Article 7- The present resolution will enter into force two months after the date of publication in the official gazette of the Republic of Venezuela.

The reasons for the final regulatory action were relevant to: Human health and environment

Summary of known hazards and risks to human health:

Prolonged exposure can lead to excite the central nervous system, abnormalities in the electroencephalogram and convulsions.
It is classified as Group 2b by IARC (possible human carcinogenic). It has been associated with infertility and development associated with infertility and inadequate development in offspring of test animals.
It produces increase in the incidence of liver cancer in rats; and endocrine disruption (1).
Some animal studies suggest that young animals exposed during pregnancy and childhood can be very sensitive to the effects of heptachlor; also were observed alterations in the nervous system and immune function in these animals. There's evidence that similar effects may occur in humans, however, the results of a study that found some alterations in the result of certain tests that assess nervous system functions were not definitive, and could well have happened simultaneous exposure to other chemicals. The exposure of animals to higher doses of heptachlor can also lead to a reduction in body weight and the death of the hatchlings.
It is also persistent in food and milk. The consumption of fish fished in contaminated waters can increase exposure to heptachlor. Do not fish or eat fish caught in contaminated waters. Local warning can inform if water is contaminated.

Summary of known hazards and risks to the environment:

High bioaccumulation and bio magnification. It is extremely toxic for fish, moderate for crustaceans and light for birds; extremely persistent in soils.
It's not susceptible to biodegradation. The half-life in soil ranges from 6 months to 3.5 years, but it has been found up to 6 years after the application. No mobility in the soil; less persistent in water (sediment).
Heptachlor in the Environment:
Mobility: Heptachlor and its epoxy bind moderately to the soil and are not excessively mobiles.
Degradation: The heptachlor and its epoxy are extremely persistent in soils, having notified semi disintegration in soil of 250 days. Data collected in Mississippi, New Jersey, showed that semi disintegration of heptachlor in soil was from 0.4 to 8 years. The elimination average of heptachlor in soils varied from 5.25 and 79.5 % per year, depending in soil type and mode of application.
Degradation products:
The heptachlor is hidroxychlordan and 1-hidroxy-2,3-epoxichlordan.
Volatilization from soil surface, especially if there's moisture, is the main via to loss heptachlor.
Heptachlor shows a strong tendency to bio accumulate in aquatic organisms.
In plants, the main product of decomposition of heptachlor is not phototoxic when used in accordance with the institutions.
The heptachlor can enter in the air, soil, groundwater and surface water as a result of leaks in hazardous wastes or garbage dumps places. The heptachlor adheres strongly to the ground, evaporating slowly into the air. The heptachlor does not dissolve easily in water and evaporates slowly from it. The heptachlor epoxy dissolves more easily in water then the heptachlor.
Both heptachlor and heptachlor epoxy can be transferred by the wind to long distances from where they were released, for example from treated soils or from manufacturing sites. In soil and water, heptachlor is transformed by bacteria to a more harmful substance: heptachlor epoxy, or to less harmful substances. The plants can absorb heptachlor from soil through the roots. The heptachlor in the air can be deposited on the plants leaves and enter in the plants from the contaminated soil.
Animals eating plants containing heptachlor can also absorb it. Animals can also transform heptachlor in their bodies. Heptachlor degrades very slowly in the environment. It can remain in soil and water for many years. Both heptachlor and heptachlor epoxy accumulate in fish and livestock. Humans can accumulate heptachlor in the fat tissues. Some studies have shown that heptachlor can be detected in humans fat tissues 3 years alter the exposition.
Most of the degradation products of heptachlor appear to be less toxic than the same heptachlor. However, heptachlor is more toxic than heptachlor epoxy in test animals.

Date of entry into force of the final regulatory action: 18/07/2005

Law approving Stockholm Convention
Ratification 03 January 2005, Official Gazette N 38.098, (Entered into force 18-07-05).
Act on Hazardous Substances, Materials and Wastes
LAW N 55
Official Gazette Extraordinary No. 5554 dated 13 November 2001.
Resolution of the Ministries of Health and Welfare, Agriculture and Livestock and Environment and Renewable Natural Resources
Official Gazette Extraordinary No 32741 dated 6 June 1983.