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Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) - Final Regulatory Action
DDT CAS number:
Date circular:

Chemical name: 1,1'-(2,2,2-trichloroethylidene)bis[4-chloro-benzene]

Final regulatory action has been taken for the category: Pesticide

Final regulatory action: The chemical is Banned

Use or uses prohibited by the final regulatory action:

Widely used insecticide of restricted use to control only malaria-transmitting mosquitoes in some countries.

The final regulatory action was based on a risk or hazard evaluation: No

Summary of the final regulatory action:

Law approving the Stockholm Convention, which is part of the legal framework of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.
NOTE: The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has signed and ratified the provisions of the Stockholm Convention related to pesticides, stipulated in Art. 3 and Annex A of the Convention.
Act on Hazardous Substances, Materials and Wastes
In Article 7, prohibits all uses, importation and distribution of polluting organic-persistent chemicals, with the exception of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), which may be used in a restricted manner, and only by government agencies, under the supervision of the Ministry of Health and Social Development, and with the approval of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, in case of need to control epidemics. The list of polluting organic-persistent chemicals will be determined by the technical regulations and the international conventions, regulating this issue, ratified by the Republic.
Resolution of the Ministries of Health and Welfare, Agriculture and Livestock and Environment and Renewable Natural Resources
Official Gazette of the Republic of Venezuela
It is the duty of the national executive to watch for the public health, and the protection and preservation of the environment;
Organochlorine insecticides carry pollution problems of soils, water and air which should cause ecological imbalances in the environment;
as has been detected by the indiscriminate use of organochlorine insecticides, which results in public health problems by the permanence of these residues in foods of vegetal and animal origin.
For provision of the citizen President of the Republic and in accordance with the provisions of Article 36, paragraph 2 of the Organic Law of Central Administration, Article 10 of the National Health Act, Articles 4 and 5 of the Fertilizer Act and other Agents Susceptible to operate a beneficial action in plants, animals, soil or waters and Article 1 of the Sanitary Defense Law for Plant and Animal.
Article 1- Preparation, import, export, storage, purchase, sale and distribution of organochlorine insecticides are only allowed for the following uses:
1.Vector control for medical reasons, provided that its application is executed by the Ministry of Health and Welfare or under its supervision and technical advice.
2.Control of agricultural pests, wherever an emergency situation and its application is executed or directed by the Ministry of Agriculture and breeding.
3.Control of leaf-cutting ants and ants, only grainy formulations containing Aldrin and Chlordane and in direct applications to the ground.
4.Control of termite in formulations containing Aldrin and Chlordane.
Article 2- The Ministries of Health and Welfare and Agriculture and Breeding will publish timely, for the purpose of this Resolution, the list of the substances considered as organochlorine compounds.
Article 3- Those cases not covered by this resolution, will be remitted to the National Executive through Joint Resolution of the Ministries of Health and Welfare, Agriculture and Livestock and the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources.
Article 4- To obtain authorizations to import, formulate and trade organochlorine insecticides, will be followed the procedure established in the general regulation of pesticides.
Article 5- The relevant officials of the respective Ministries will ensure strict compliance of this resolution.
Article 6- The infractions to the provisions contained in the present resolution shall be punished according to the rules specified in the Law on Sanitary Protection of Plants and Animals, without prejudice of the application of other sanctions contained in the existing legislation.
Article 7- The present resolution will enter into force two months after the date of publication in the official gazette of the Republic of Venezuela.

The reasons for the final regulatory action were relevant to: Human health and environment

Summary of known hazards and risks to human health:

Acute: same to those of exposure to organochlorines
Chronics: Electroencephalogram abnormalities and convulsions. Classified as Group 2b by IARC (possible carcinogenic for humans). In laboratory test it has shown to be mutagenic (moderate meiotic inhibition and damage), suppresses immune system and causes sterility.
DDT affects nervous system. People who accidentally swallowed large amounts of DDT were excitable and suffered tremors and convulsions. These effects disappeared after the exposure ended. In people who ingested small daily doses of DDT in capsule for 18 months no effect was observed. A study in humans showed that women who had high amounts of a kind of DDE in the breast milk were unable to breastfeed their babies for the same period of time that women who had little DDE in the milk. Another study in humans showed that women who had high amounts of DDE in the milk had higher probabilities of deliver premature babies. In animals, a short exposition to big amounts of DDT in food affected the nervous system, while prolonged exposition to smaller quantities affected the liver. Also in animals, short exposure to small amounts of DDT or its degradation products can adversely affect reproduction.
There are no studies on the effects of exposure to DDT, DDE or DDD on children's health. It is reasonable to assume that children exposed to large amounts of DDT will experience health effects similar to those observed in adults. However, we don't know if children have different susceptibility to these substances as adults do.
There is no evidence that DDT, DDE and DDD cause birth defects in humans. One study showed that adolescent children whose mothers had higher amounts of DDE during pregnancy were taller than those whose mothers had lower amounts of DDE. However, a different study noted otherwise in pre-adolescent girls. The reason for this discrepancy between studies is not known.
Studies on rats have shown that DDT and DDE can imitate the action of natural hormones and thus affect the development of the reproductive and nervous system. Puberty was delayed in male rats that were administered, when young, high amounts of DDE. This may also happen in humans.
A study in mice showed that exposure to DDT during the first weeks of life can cause behavioral problems later in life.

Summary of known hazards and risks to the environment:

DDT in the Environment
DDT is not mobile. It is intensively absorbed in the soil and do not leach in groundwater.
In soil, DDT is biologically degradable, its semi disintegration ranging between 2 year and more than 15 years. The biodegradation is faster in flooded soils and in anaerobic conditions. It has been reported that it will disappear from soil (75 to 100 per cent) in 4-30 years. DDT hardly hydrolyzes, as reported; the semi disintegration by hydrolysis is 12 years.
It is susceptible to evaporate in water, and that is why semi disintegration is estimated between several and 50 hours. Direct decomposition of a compound by the light in an aqueous solution is very slow, the semi disintegration being higher than 150 years. Indirect processes of photolysis (initiated by natural substances) can be an important step in the transformation of DDT; in which case its semi disintegration is of a few days. The biodegradation in water is generally deficient.
Degradation Products:
The typical products of metabolic or chemical reduction are DDE in aerobic conditions and DDD to DDA in anaerobic conditions.
Volatilization/evaporation: Non applicable.
If DDT is released in water, there is a strong absorption in sediments and a significant bioconcentration in fish.
What happen to DDT when enters in the environment
DDT entered in the environment when used as pesticide; today still enters by its present use in other countries.
DDE enters in the environment as contaminant or degradation product of DDT; it also enters in the environment as a result of DDT degradation.
DDT is degraded rapidly in the air by sunlight. Half of what exists in the air degrades in 2 days or less.
Adheres firmly to the soil; most of DDT in soil is slowly degraded to DDE and DDD by micro organisms; half of DDT in soil is degraded in 2-15 years, depending on soil type.
Only a small amount will pass through the soil to groundwater; do not dissolve easily in water.
DDT, and specially DDE, can accumulate in plants and fat tissues of fish, birds and other animals.

Date of entry into force of the final regulatory action: 18/07/2005

Ratification 03 January 2005, Official Gazette N 38.098, (Entered into force 18-07-05).
Act on Hazardous Substances, Materials and Wastes
LAW N 55
Official Gazette Extraordinary No. 5554 dated 13 November 2001.
Resolution of the Ministries of Health and Welfare, Agriculture and Livestock and Environment and Renewable Natural Resources
Official Gazette Extraordinary No 32741 dated 6 June 1983.