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Switzerland - Final Regulatory Action
Binapacryl CAS number:
Date circular:

Chemical name: 2-Butenoic acid, 3-methyl-, 2-(1-methylpropyl)-4,6-dinitrophenyl ester

Final regulatory action has been taken for the category: Pesticide

Final regulatory action: The chemical is Banned

Use or uses prohibited by the final regulatory action:

All formulations and all uses are prohibited.

Pesticide use or uses that remain allowed:


The final regulatory action was based on a risk or hazard evaluation: No

Summary of the final regulatory action:

The Annex I of the Ordinance on the plant protection products (OPPP) enumerates all active substances officially recognized that can be used in plant protection products. Binapacryl is not listed in Annex I as active substance and is thus banned.

The reasons for the final regulatory action were relevant to: Human health and environment

Summary of known hazards and risks to human health:

Binapacryl is a dinitrophenol and acts by uncoupling or inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation, which prevents the formation of ATP, leading to hyperthermia, tachycardia, dehydration and depletion of carbohydrate and fat stores. Uptake of nitrophenols and nitrocresols takes place via the gastrointestinal tract, skin and lungs. Nitrophenols and nitrocresols undergo some biotransformation in humans, mainly reduction (one nitro group to an amino group) and conjugation at the phenolic site. Although nitrophenols and metabolites appear consistently in the urine of poisoned individuals, hepatic excretion is probably the main route of disposition; elimination is slow.
Nitroaromatic compounds are highly toxic to humans and animals, specifically to the liver, kidney and nervous system.
Acute toxicity:
-LD50, oral: 58-200 mg/kg
-LD50, dermal: 720-750 mg/kg
Short and long-term exposure: Six-month feeding study with rats showed LOEC of 200 ppm.
Long-term exposure: Two-year feeding studies with rats (200-500 mg/kg) and dogs (20-50 mg/kg) showed no effect on morbidity or mortality.
Effects on reproduction: A multigeneration study in rats showed no effect of binapacryl.
Embryo-toxicity and teratogenicity: No effects in New Zealand rabbits.
Mutagenicity: Binapacryl was positive in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 without metabolic activation.
Carcinogenicity: No effects in rats (500 mg/kg in diet for 2 years) or dogs (50 mg/kg in diet for 2 years).

Summary of known hazards and risks to the environment:

If released to soil, binapacryl may undergo slow hydrolyses in basic soils. If released to water, binapacryl is expected to undergo slow hydrolysis to dinoseb under basic conditions. Binapacryl is known to slowly decompose under the influence of UV light and it may undergo photolysis in the atmosphere. An estimated rate constant for the gas-phase reaction of binapacryl with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals leads to an estimated half-life of 4.63 hours in the ambient atmosphere.
Binapacryl, a dinitrophenol ester, probably hydrolyzes to form free phenol, identical in structure to the herbicide dinoseb. Only after such a transformation might there be some potential for leaching Based on an estimated log octanol/water partition coefficient of 4.75, a calculated bioconcentration factor of 2400 can be calculated for binapacryl using an appropriate regression equation. The magnitude of this value indicates that binapacryl may significantly bioconcentrate in fish and aquatic organisms.
Binapacryl is highly toxic to fish; (LC50 : 0.04 - 0.06 mg/l) and is toxic to aquatic organisms. Asellus brevicaudus (96 hours) 29 g/l at 16 C as the technical material
There are no studies on effects on birds related only to binapacryl.
Binapacryl is not toxic to bees.

Date of entry into force of the final regulatory action: 18/05/2005