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Panama - Final Regulatory Action
2,4,5-T and its salts and esters CAS number:
93-76-5 (*)
Date circular:

Chemical name: Acetic acid, (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)-

Final regulatory action has been taken for the category: Pesticide

Final regulatory action: The chemical is Banned

Use or uses prohibited by the final regulatory action:

All formulations

Pesticide use or uses that remain allowed:


The final regulatory action was based on a risk or hazard evaluation: Yes

Summary of the final regulatory action:

Agricultural Development Ministry Decree No. 074 of 18 September 1997 establishing prohibited pesticides and listing prohibited pesticides in agriculture. 2,4,5-T is also included in this list.
Law No. 12 of 14 June 2000 approved the Rotterdam Convention for the application of the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for certain hazardous pesticides and chemicals in the international trade, signed in Rotterdam on 10 September 1998.
Law No.1 of 10 January 2001 on medicines and other hazardous products for human health.
Executive Decree No. 305 of 9 September 2002 establishing the automatic cancellation in order to regulate the import of certain potentially hazardous chemical substances (such as substances or controlled hazardous materials), and determining other provisions.

The reasons for the final regulatory action were relevant to: Human health and environment

Summary of known hazards and risks to human health:

The risks to human health and environment are higher than the benefits obtained with its use, no measure could reduce risks to an acceptable level, and better alternatives can be found.
Contamination due to dioxins. The orange agent which contains 2,4 -D and 2,4,5-T with impurities of dioxins was utilized by the American Army. No export inventory is known for this product.
Adverse effects in humans: The exposure to large quantities is amenable to symptoms of respiratory difficulty, rashes, loss of sensibility in the extremities, fatigue and dizziness. After a massive exposure to 2,4,5-T there have been from light to moderate cases of nausea, headaches, cramps and fever. Stomach cramps, vomit, exposure or numerous exposures of small doses for a prolonged period.
Chronic adverse effects on humans: With an actual dose of 0,001mg/kg/day during pregnancy, the 2,3,7,8- TCDD has a very high teratogenic potential. As far as the reproductive effects are concerned, fetotoxicity and teratogenity was demonstrated in all animal species tested.
Foetus toxic effects in test animals: reduction of the foetus size, skeleton malformation, kidney and other internal organs damages, and death.
Studies indicated that TCDD is strongly carcinogenic to animals. The epidemiological studies de-monstrated an increase of tumours, especially sarcomas in soft tissues, due to the exposure to 2,4,5-T.

Expected effect of the final regulatory action in relation to human health:

By reducing the risk factor the effects on the population can be diminished.

Summary of known hazards and risks to the environment:

It is phytotoxic for almost all wide leave vegetables specially for cotton, tomatoes, ornamentals, vineyards and fruits trees.

Expected effect of the final regulatory action in relation to the environment:

Cost effectiveness for the Administration Health Services at long, medium and short term.

Date of entry into force of the final regulatory action: 01/01/2002