Return to the list
Panama - Final Regulatory Action
Toxaphene (Camphechlor) CAS number:
Date circular:

Chemical name: Toxaphene

Final regulatory action has been taken for the category: Pesticide

Final regulatory action: The chemical is Banned

Use or uses prohibited by the final regulatory action:

All formulations.

Pesticide use or uses that remain allowed:


The final regulatory action was based on a risk or hazard evaluation: Yes

Summary of the final regulatory action:

Agricultural Development Ministry Decree No. 074 of 18 September 1997 establishing prohibited pesticides and listing prohibited pesticides in agriculture. Toxaphene and Camphechlor are also included in this list.
Law no. 12 of 14 June 2000 approved the Rotterdam Convention for the application of the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for certain hazardous pesticides and chemicals in the international trade, signed in Rotterdam on 10 September 1998.
Law No.1 of 10 January 2001 on medicines and other hazardous products for human health.
Executive Decree no. 305 of 9 September 2002 establishing the automatic cancellation in order to regulate the import of certain potentially hazardous chemical substances (such as substances or controlled hazardous materials), and determining other provisions.

The reasons for the final regulatory action were relevant to: Human health and environment

Summary of known hazards and risks to human health:

Reducing exposure to risk factor will reduce the effects on the population directly exposed (occupational) and on the population indirectly exposed (accidental, environmental or acquired) to obsolete Toxaphene or Camphechlor used for insect control in the bases and the channel area as well as degradation products, this is confirmed by a series of special toxicity studies on systematized mammals by IRPTC, cataloging Toxaphene as: possibly carcinogenic to human, mutagenic, produces behavioral changes and primer irritation, immunotoxic, affects reproduction and teratogenic. During the Second Forum of the IFCS it was outlined that other studies were not necessary if the information was validated and confirmed by experts. However, the communication of risk evaluation could change.

Expected effect of the final regulatory action in relation to human health:

The product is subject to the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) procedure which requires that those hazardous substances and pesticides that are banned or severely restricted must not be exported, unless the importing country provides explicit consent. Those countries that do not consent such substances are obliged to prohibit national production of the substance for domestic uses. It is declared prohibited by the Government of Panama. It is foreseen the Ratification of the Stockholm Convention.

Summary of known hazards and risks to the environment:

The substance has a high potential to bioaccumulate, and it bioaccumulates easily in aquatic organisms. It is highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates, moderately toxic for birds and low toxic to bees. Toxaphene is easily spreadable.

Expected effect of the final regulatory action in relation to the environment:

The Stockholm Convention ratification. All formulations are banned and the registered formulations have been cancelled. It is considered hazardous waste subject to specialized control and treatment.

Date of entry into force of the final regulatory action: 01/01/2002