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Cyprus - Final Regulatory Action
Dinitro-ortho-cresol (DNOC) and its salts (such as ammonium salt, potassium salt and sodium salt) CAS number:
534-52-1
Date circular:
12/12/2000

Chemical name:

Final regulatory action has been taken for the category: Pesticide

Final regulatory action: The chemical is Banned

Use or uses prohibited by the final regulatory action:

banned as a pesticide. All registrations of pesticides containing DNOC have been withdrawn by the Pesticide Authorization Board. Decision on 17/05/1999

Pesticide use or uses that remain allowed:

None

The final regulatory action was based on a risk or hazard evaluation: Yes

Summary of the final regulatory action:

The final regulatory action was taken by the Pesticide Authorization Board on 15/05/1999, which was put into force on 30/04/2000. The decision was taken for the protection of the users, farmers, non-target species and the environment. It was based on a relevant decision of the European Community, Commission Decision 1999/164/EC of 17 February 1999

The reasons for the final regulatory action were relevant to: Human health and environment

Summary of known hazards and risks to human health:

In human beings and animals DNOC acts as a powerful cumulative metabolic poison, with irreversible effects on basic organs. There is a danger of chronic poisoning with repeated uptake.
DNOC may be absorbed in dangerous amounts from the skin, as well as by ingestion or inhalation of spray droplets. There are experimental findings showing that in humans this chemical caused a continuing increase in blood level when given for short period of time (7 days).
In humans, 5 doses at the average rate of 1 mg/kg/day produced blood levels of 15-20 ppm. It is noted that blood levels of DNOC were reduced at the rate of only abou 5 ppm/week. After voluntary ingestion of 75mg of pure DNOC for 5 consecutive days, the level in blood was 1 mg/liter almost 6 weeks later. It was found that in intoxicated DNOC sprayers, it took up to 8 weeks to clear the compound from the serum.
Skin also acts as a reservoir for DNOC; 48 h after dermal dosing, rabbits still had blood levels of 2,4-7,9 ppm, whereas the compound was undetectable in the blood of rabbits dosed 24 h earlier by other routes.
In persons who have died from the effects of DNOC, yellow staining of the organs, tissues, and fluids due to the presence of the sodium salt from DNOC may be noted. The lungs are congested and there is usually some edema and a few petechial hemorrhages. There may be similar hemorrhagic changes in the brain and gastric mucosa.
Having in mind the way of using this chemical by the farmers (improper clothing, sometimes lack of mask, etc.), this chemical may be a threat to their health.

Expected effect of the final regulatory action in relation to human health:

The final regulatory action will have considerable improvement in human health due to the absence of this chemical and its replacement by more safe chemicals

Summary of known hazards and risks to the environment:

DNOC is toxic to fish, birds and beneficial insects and mites, snails, and earthworms. It is persistent in soil and water. Soluble in water, it degrades very slowly (DT50>1 year). When it is applied in soil at 50 ppm, persists for 7 days.
The way of use of this chemical by the farmers (winter wash covering with high volume) may affect the quality of the environment

Expected effect of the final regulatory action in relation to the environment:

Times New Roman;
MS Sans Serif;
The final regulatory action will have a considerable improvement in the populations of non-target species, quality of environment due to the absence of this chemical and its replacement by more safe chemicals, which are used at low dosage.

Date of entry into force of the final regulatory action: 30/04/2000